Home Search Emissions Pollutants About the Database


TOLUENE


image source: PubChem
Health concerns of ingredient
About the ratings
Canceryes
Developmental & reproductive toxicityyes
Allergies & immunotoxicityyes
Other HIGH concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Occupational hazards, Use restrictions
Other MODERATE concerns: Neurotoxicity, Persistence and bioaccumulation, Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology, Data gaps

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

About TOLUENE: A volatile petrochemical solvent and paint thinner, toluene is a potent neurotoxicant that acts as an irritant, impairs breathing, and causes nausea. Motherís exposure to toluene vapors during pregnan ... read more

Synonym(s): BENZENE, METHYL-; METHYLBENZENE; TOLUOL; METHYL- BENZENE; BENZENE, METHYL; ANTISAL 1A; BENZENE, METHYL-; CP 25; METHACIDE; METHANE, PHENYL-; METHYLBENZENE

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidenceChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
show more

Neurotoxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicityChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
show more

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Possible human renal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
show more

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicitynternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996
show more

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of Concern Reference
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
show more

Cancer

Type of Concern Reference
Cancer - limited evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
show more

Occupational hazards

Type of Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of Concern Reference
Classified as skin irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Human irritant - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
show more

Ecotoxicology

Type of Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
show more

Miscellaneous

Type of Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Data gaps

Type of Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Considered safe based on assumption of low absorption Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Insufficient data to determine safety EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
15,182 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results -> PubMed

Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensTOLUENEDevelopmental Toxicity Hazards: recognized

references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
CHE Toxicant and Disease DatabaseCHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsIFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humansGrandjean P and PJ Landrigan. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2167-78.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.