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Health concerns of ingredient
About the ratings
Developmental & reproductive toxicityyes
Allergies & immunotoxicityyes
Other HIGH concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Multiple, additive exposure sources, Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs), Occupational hazards, Use restrictions
Other MODERATE concerns: Neurotoxicity, Biochemical or cellular level changes
Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer



Type of Concern Reference
Known human carcinogenAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogenEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Known human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Known human carcinogenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Cancer - strong evidence
Cancer - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human carcinogenNTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - moderate evidence - renalCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
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Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidence
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidenceChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
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Type of Concern Reference
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicityChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
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Type of Concern Reference
Human immune toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human hematologic toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human hematologic toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
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Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of Concern Reference
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information available FDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status

Occupational hazards

Type of Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of Concern Reference
Classified as irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
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Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of Concern Reference
Cancer - moderate evidence - immune systemCHE Toxicant and Disease Database


Type of Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
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Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List


Type of Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Data gaps

Type of Concern Reference

Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)


government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
CHE Toxicant and Disease DatabaseCHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsIFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humansGrandjean P and PJ Landrigan. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2167-78.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.

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